• OpenAccess
  • Anemia among Antenatal Mother in Urban Malaysia  [CAEBM 2015]
  • DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.33002   PP.6 - 11
  • Author(s)
  • Kim Lam Soh, Eusni Rahayu Mohd Tohit, Salimah Japar, Soh Kim Geok, Norhaslinda Binti Ab Rahman, Rosna Abdul Raman
  • An understanding of factors influencing haemoglobin (Hb) level among antenatal mothers can help healthcare providers assess, take appropriate action and manage anaemia in this risk group more effectively. A cross-sectional study was conducted in urban areas in Malaysia to determine the Hb levels of antenatal mothers and their association with various socio-economic characteristics. Data for this study were collected from pregnant women during their first antenatal check-up at three selected polyclinics in Malaysia. Anaemia in pregnancy was determined by the Hb level recorded during the first and the last antenatal visits. Determination of Hb was either by a photo calorimetric method or by the Sahliís method. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to identify the factors influencing Hb level among the antenatal mothers. This study found that 73 out of 217 mothers (33%) were anaemic in that their Hb levels were below 11.00 g/dl. The findings also suggested that Hb levels among the antenatal mothers were influenced by various factors such as education level, occupation, and family income. Anaemia was generally more common among antenatal mothers who had a lower level of education and who were from a background of lower family income.

  • Antenatal Mothers, Pregnant Women, Haemoglobin, Anemia, Maternal, Malaysia
  • References
  • [1]
    Benoist, B.D., McLean, E., Egll, I. and Cogswell, M. (2008) Worldwide Prevalence of Anaemia 1993-2005: WHO Global Database on Anaemia. World Health Organization, Geneva.
    Haniff, J., et al. (2007) Anemia in Pregnancy in Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16, 527-536.
    Yajnik, C.S., et al. (2003) Neonatal Anthropometry: The Thin-Fat Indian Baby. The Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. International Journal of Obesity, 27, 173-180.
    Goonewardene, M., Shehata, M. and Hamad, A. (2012) Anaemia in Pregnancy. Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 26, 3-24.
    Pena-Rosas, J.P. and Viteri, F. (2009) Effects and Safety of Preventive Oral Iron or Iron + Folic Acid Supplementation for Women during Pregnancy. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 4, Article ID: CD004736.
    World Health Organization (2008) The Prevalence of Anaemia in Women: A Tabulation of Available Information. WHO, Geneva.
    Uche-Nwachi, E., et al. (2010) Anaemia in Pregnancy: Associations with Parity, Abortions and Child Spacing in Primary Healthcare Clinic Attendees in Trinidad and Tobago. African Health Sciences, 10, 66-70.
    Rijken, M.J., et al. (2014) Quantifying Low Birth Weight, Preterm Birth and Small for Gestational Age Effects of Malaria in Pregnancy: A Population Cohort Study. PLoS One, 9, 1-8.
    Woods, C.R., Davis, D.W., Duncan, S.D. and Myers, J.A. (2014) Vari-ation in Classification of Live Birth with Newborn Period Death versus Fetal Death at the Local Level May Impact Reported Infant Mortality Rate. BMC Pediatrics, 14, 108-117.
    Whitfield, C.R. (1995) Blood Disorders in Pregnancy. In: Whitfield, C.R., E., Dewhurst’s Textbook of Obstetrics & Gynaecology for Postgraduates, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, 228-253.
    Ramachandran, P. (2002) Maternal Nutrition: Effect on Fetal Growth and Outcome of Pregnancy. Nutrition Reviews, 60, S26-S34.
    Sahoo, S. and Panda, B. (2006) A Study of Nutritional Status of Pregnant Women of Some Villages in Balasore District, Orissa. Journal of Human Ecology, 20, 227-232.
    Eijkemans, M.J.C., et al. (2014) Too Old to Have Children? Lessons from Natural Fertility Populations. Human Reproduction.
    Adebisi, O.Y. and Strayhorn, G. (2005) Anemia in Pregnancy and Race in the United States: Blacks at Risk. Family Medicine, 37, 655-662.
    Meda, N., Mandelbrot, L., Cartoux, M., Dao, B. and Ouangre, ?.A. (1999) Anaemia during Pregnancy in Burkina Faso, West Africa, 1995-96: Prevalence and Associated Factors. Children, 5, 916-922.
    Frith-Terhune, A.L., Cogswell, M.E., Khan, L.K., Will, J.C. and Ramakrishnan, U. (2000) Iron Deficiency Anemia: Higher Prevalence in Mexican American than in Non-Hispanic White Females in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1988-1994. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72, 963-968.

Engineering Information Institute is the member of/source content provider to